Excretory Products And Their Elimination Questions

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Excretory Products And Their Elimination Questions

List of excretory products and their elimination Questions

Question NoQuestionsClass
1The concentration of glucose in plasma is ( 100 mathrm{mg} / 100 mathrm{mL} ), and the GFR is 125 ( mathrm{mL} / mathrm{min.} ) How much glucose is filtered
per minute?
11
2The longest loop of Henle is found in
A. Kangaroo ratt
B. Opposum
c. Rhesus monkey
D. Porcupine
11
3In housefly, the excretory organs are
A. Nephridia
B. Flame cells
c. Malpighian tubules
D. Kidneys
11
4When we say a nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidneys, we mean that
(P) The kidney is made up of many nephrons.
(Q) The filtration of blood that occurs in the kidneys is because of what the nephrons do.
(R) Urea formation occurs in the
nephrons.
A. Only P and Q
B. Only Q and R
c. only ( mathrm{P} ) and ( mathrm{R} )
D. P, Q and R
11
5Nephrons are connected with
A. Respiratory system
B. Nervous system
C. Circulatory system
D. Excretory system
11
6Podocytes occur in
A. Large intenstine
B. Bowman’s capsule
c. wall of capillaries
D. Neck region
11
7Surgical removal of both the kidneys would result in death because
A. Water will accumulate in blood
B. Urea will not be excreted
c. Immune response will be suppressed
D. Glucose will be lost from the body
11
8Which of the following processes
creates high osmotic pressure in
uriniferous tubule?
A. Active secretion of ( N a^{+} ) into efferent arteriole followed
by Cl secretion
B. Active ( N a^{+} ) absorption followed by Cl absorption
C. Active secretion of ( C l^{-} ) and absorption of ( N a^{+} ) into efferent arteriole
D. Active Cl absorption followed by absorption of ( N a^{+} )
11
9Proximal convoluted tubule of nephron
is responsible for
A. Filtration of blood
B. Maintenance of Glomerular Filtration Rate
C. Selective reabsorption of glucose, amino acid, NaCl and water
D. Reabsorption of salts only
11
10( = )
( = )
( = )
( = )
( equiv )
( 1=underbrace{x^{text {There }}} )
11
11The urine under normal conditions does
not contain glucose because
A. The normal blood sugar is fructose.
B. Glucose of blood is not filtered in the glomerulus
c. Glucose in glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed in the uriniferous tubules
D. Glucose in glomerular filtrate is converted into glycogen.
11
12When the blood urea and blood
creatinine level are significantly high then the treatment of choice is
A. Given suitable antibiotics
B. Haemodialysis
c. Kidney transplantation
D. Steroids therapy
11
13Choose the correct statement from the
following.
A. Right kidney slightly lower than the left one due to stomach
B. Left kidney slightly lower than the right one due to live
c. Right kidney slightly lower than the left kidney due to liver
D. Right kidney slightly upper than the left kidney due to liver
11
14A Malpighian body is constituted by
A. Glomerulus only
B. Glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule
c. Glomerulus and Efferent vesse
D. Glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule and Efferent vessel
11
15What happens to glucose which enters
the nephron along with filterate during excretion in human beings? State two vital functions of kidney.
11
16Urea and uric acid are11
17In peritoneal dialysis
A. Blood is removed from the body and a natural filter is employed
B. Blood is not removed from the body and a natural filter is employed
C. Blood is not removed from the body and an artificial filter is used
D. Blood is removed from the body and an artificial filter is employed
11
18Main component (quantity wise) of urine is.
A. Urea
B. Sodium
c. water
D. Creatine
11
19The water is reabsorbed under the
influence of ADH. it is
A. Active reabsorption
B. obligatory reabsorption
c. Facultative
D. All of the above
11
20Urea is formed in
A. Liver
B. spleen
c. Kidney
D. Lungs
11
21The principal of nitrogenous excretory
compound in humans is synthesised
A. in kidneys but eliminated mostly through liver
B. as well as eliminated by kidneys
C. in liver and also eliminated by the same through bile
D. in the liver, but eliminated mostly through kidneys.
11
22The interior of the urinary bladder is
lined by
A. Columnar epithelium
B. Squamous epithelium
c. Transitional epithelium
D. Goblet cells
11
23Number of nephrons of a kidney is equal
to
A. Sum of Bowmans capsules and glomeruli
B. Sum of Bowmans capsules and malpighian corpuscles
C. Double the number of Bowmans capsule
D. Equal to number of Bowmans capsules
11
24Urinary excretion of ‘Na’ is regulated by
A. Anterior pituitary
B. Posterior pituitary
c. Adrenal cortex
D. Adrenal medulla
11
25Vasopressin released from the
neurohypophysis is mainly responsible
for
A. Facultative reabsorption of water through Henle’s loop
B. Obligatory reabsorption of water through Bowman’s capsule
C. Facultative reabsorption of water through DCT
D. Obligatory reabsorption of water through PCT
11
26Renal rickets are bending of weight bearing long bones in
A. Infants
B. Young children
c. Adolescents
D. Elderly persons
11
27All of the following are the functions of the mammalian kidney, except
A. Elimination of urea and other nitrogenous wastes
B. Maintenance of water balance
c. Manufacture of antibodies
D. Regulation of salt excretion
E. Formation of urine from glomerular filtrate
11
28The yellow colour of urine of the vertebrates is due to
A. Cholesterol
B. Urochrome
c. Uric acid
D. Melanin
11
29Diabetes is a disease in which the urine
contains
A. Sugar
B. Salt
( c . ) Fat
D. Protein
11
30Match the following and choose the
correct option.
( mathbf{A} )
B. A- 4, B-1, C-2, D-3
C. ( A-4, B-1, C-3, D-4 )
D. ( A-4, B-2, C-3, D-4 )
11
31Loop of Henle is concerned with
A. Excretory system
B. Reproductive system
C. Nervous system
D. Muscular system
11
32Match the columns and choose the
correct option.
11
33consider the following statements each with one or two blanks.
(i) The ascending limb of loop of Henle is impermeable to (1) but allows transport of (2)
(ii) (3) and
(4) play a significant role in producing a concentrated urine.
(iii) A fall in glomerular blood flow/glomerular blood pressure/GFR can activate the JG cells to release (5)
Which one of the following options correctly fills the blanks in any two of the statements?
A. (1)-water, (2)-electrolytes, (5)-renin
B. (3)-Henle’s loop, (4)-vasa recta,
(5)-angiotensin
c. (1)-electrolytes,
(2)-water,
( (3)- ) РСТ, ( (4)- ) DCT
D. (3)-Henle’s loop, (4)-vasa recta, (5)-angiotensinogen
11
34Refer the following diagram and identify
the parts of a kidney indicated.
A. A- Cortex, B- Nephron, C- Pelvis, D- Medulla, E- Ureter
B. A- Cortex, B- Medulla, C- Nephron, D- Pelvis, E- Ureter
C. A- Nephron, B- Cortex, C- Medulla, D- Ureter, E- Pelvis
D. A- Nephron, B- Cortex, C- Medulla, D- Pelvis, E- Ureter
E. A- Nephron, B- Ureter, C- Pelvis, D- Medulla, E- Cortex
11
35Brush border is characteristic of
A. Malpighian corpuscle
B. Collecting tube
c. Proximal convoluted tubule
D. All of the above
11
36Write the names of any two excretory organs in human beings.11
37Glycosuria is the term used for
A. Loss of glucose in urine
B. Loss of blood in the urine
C. Loss of salts in the urine
D. None of these
11
38Uric acid forms in body by
A. Phospholipid
B. Glucose
c. DNA
D. RNA
11
39Ducts of Bellini open in
A. Minor calyx
B. Major calyx
c. Renal pyramid
D. Renal sinus
11
40Which is correct
A. An increase in glomerular blood flow stimulates formation of angiotensin II
B. During summer, when body loses a lot of water by evaporation, the release of ADH is suppressed
C. When someone drinks a lot of water, ADH release is
suppressed
D. Exposure to cold temperature stimulates ADH release
11
41Characteristic smell of urine is due to
A. Urea
B. Uric acid
c. Urinod substancce
D. Pus
11
42What conditions are responsible for stimulation of juxtaglomerular
apparatus?
A. An increase in blood pressure or blood volume in heart
B. An increase in the solute concentration the blood plasma.
C. A decrease in the solute concentration oil the blood
plasma.
D. Decrease in blood pressure or blood volume in afferent arteriole.
11
43Which one is not an excretory organ?
A. skin
B. Kidneys
c. Intestine
D. Liver
11
44In glomerulus of rabbit
A. Afferent glomerular capillary is wider than efferent glomerular capillary
B. Afferrent glomerular capillary is narrower than efferent glomerular capillary
C. Afferent glomerular arteriole is narrower than the efferent glomerular arteriole
D. Afferent glomerular arteriole is wider than the efferent glomerular arteriole
11
45If Henles loop were absent from
mammalian nephron which of the following is to be expected
A. There will be no urine formation
B. There will be hardly any change in the quality and quantity of urine formed
c. The urine will be more concentrated
D. The urine will be more dilute
11
46Transportation in the living organisms
is necessary, because of the following
reasons
A. Food, oxygen, water and other essential substances are distributed through this system
B. It displaces the excretory wastes from the cells of the body to the excretory organs from where they are expelled out
c. Temperature and pressure throughout the body are kept uniform
D. All of the above
11
47What is dialysis? State the condition in which dialysis treatment is given? Will
this be able to replace all kidney functions. Explain.
11
48Which is true about the difference
between cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons?
A. Most nephrons are juxtamedullary.
B. The efferent arteriole’s of cortical nephrons give rise to most of the vasa recta
c. The aaferent arterioles of the juxtamedullary nephrons give rise to most of the vasa recta
D. Juxtamedullary nephrons generate a hyperosmotic medullary interstitium
11
49Glucose and amino acids are
reabsorbed in the
A. Proximal tubule
B. Distal tubule
c. collecting duct
D. Loop of Henle
11
50The rate of uric acid excretion per day
through urine is
A. Nil
B. 0.2 gm to 0.7 gm
c. ( 0.7 mathrm{gm} )
D. ( 2 mathrm{gm} )
11
51Alkaptonuria is a disease where the
urine is
A. Yellow
B. White
c. orange
D. Black
11
52ADH takes part in
A. Reabsorption of ( N a^{+} )
B. Reabsorption of watera
C. Tabular secretion of creatinine
D. Tubular secretion of urea
11
53The crossopterygians possess scales called as
A. Placoid
B. Cycloid
c. Ganoid
D. cosmoid
11
54In the human urinary system, there are various structures like the renal artery,
renal vein, ureter, bladder etc.

Which row shows substances that are
present in each of these structures in a
healthy person?

11
55Fill in the blanks with appropriate
words.

Urine is carried from the kidneys by ( _{text {. ………… to the urinary bladder. }} )

11
56Which one acts as artificial kidney in haemodialysis?
A. Dialysing liquid
B. Bubble trap
c. Blood pump
D. Dialyser
11
57Endotherms or warm blooded animals
maintain a constant temperature by
A. Insulating coat
B. Changing cutaneous circulation
c. Both A and B
D. Disposing off extra energy as heat
11
58Marcello Malpighi after whom malpighian corpuscles are named was born in
A. Germany
B. Italy y
C. Australia
D. Austria
11
59Match the items of Column I with
Column II
11
60Choose the correct answers from the
following given. Which of the following components of blood does not enter the nephron?
A. Plasma proteins
B. Glucose
c. sodium ( left(N a^{+}right) ) ions
D. urea
11
61Select the wrongly paired one from the
following.
A. Hepatic caecae – Exretion
B. Crop in grasshopper – Temporary storage of food
C. Blood of grasshopper-Haemolymph
D. Egetion – Removal of undigested food from the body.
11
62Significantly higher level of urea in the blood is the indication of
A. Liver damage
B. Kidney damage
c. Heart attack
D. spleen damage
11
63The portion of nephron which is relatively impermeable to water is
A. Collecting tubule
B. Ascending limb of loop of henle
c. Distal tubule
D. Loop of Henle
11
64Mention the exact location of the
following structures:
(i) Thylakoids
(ii) Organ of Corti
(iiii) Lenticels
( (i v) ) Bicuspid valve
(v) Loop of Henle
11
65Malpighian corpuscles occur in
A. Medulla
B. Cortex
c. Pelvis
D. Pyramid
11
66(a) What is lymph?
(b) Draw a labelled diagram of human
excretory system.
(c) How plants excrete waste products? Explain.
11
67Stool of a person contain whitish grey colour is due to malfunction of
organ
A. Pancrease
B. Spleen
c. Kidney
D. Liver
11
68Urine formation occurs in
A . Liver
B. Kidney
c. spleen
D. Heart
11
69Incomplete loop of Henle is found in
( mathbf{A} )
Frog
( mathbf{B} )
Human
( mathbf{c} )
Bird
D.
Mammal
11
70Arrange the following in correct order based on increasing toxicity.
(a) Urea
(b) Uric acid
(c) Ammonia
A. a-b-c
B. b-a-c
c. ( c-a-b )
D. c-b-a
11
71Match the excretory functions with the
parts of the excretory system.choose the correct combination from among the
answers given.
List 1
1. Ultra filtration
a. Henle’s loop
2. Concentration of
b. Ureter าe
3. Transport of urine
c. Urinary bladder
d. Malpighian
4. Storage of urine ( quad ) corpuscle
A. ( 1-d, 2-a, 3-b, 4-c )
B. ( 1-mathrm{d}, 2-mathrm{c}, 3-mathrm{b}, 4-mathrm{a} )
c. ( 1-mathrm{e}, 2-mathrm{d}, 3-mathrm{a}, 4-mathrm{b} )
D. ( 1-d, 2-a, 3-c, 4-b )
11
72Which of the following does not help in excretion?
A. Liver
B. Sweat glands
c. Pancreas
D. Both A and B
11
73Very short answer type.
What happens to plasma proteins during hemodialysis?
11
74Which is true for excretion in humans
A. Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed in PCT by simple diffusion
B. DCT is impermeable to water
C. On the average, ( 25-30 ) gm of urea is excreted per day
D. Maximum reabsorption occurs in loop of Henle
11
75Henles loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine.
A. True
B. False
11
7643. Uric acid is the chief nitrogenous
wastes in
(1) Frogs (2) Birds
(3) Fishes (4) Mankind
11
77The loop of Henle is most highly developed in
A. Freshwater fishes
B. Salamanders
c. Desert lizards
D. Mammals
11
78Kidneys are organs of excretion in
A. All chordates
B. Mammals only
C. Mammals, reptiles and amphibians only
D. Mammals and amphibians
11
79Which of the following is the most toxic excretory product?
A. ( C O_{2} )
B. Ammonia
c. urea
D. Amino acids
11
80Choose the correct answers from the
following given. Which of the following does not constitute a part of a uriniferous
tubule?
A. Loop of Henlele
B. Distal convoluted tubule
c. Bowmans capsule
D. collecting duct
11
81Name the procedure used in the working of artificial kidney.11
82In the urinogenital organs of rabbit, which one of following part is present in male but not in female?
A. Urethra
B. Fallopian tube
c. vagina
D. Vas deferens
11
83Most abundant, harmful and universal
waste product of metabolism is
A. Uric acid
в. ( H_{2} )
( c cdot C O_{2} )
D. None of the above
11
84Which of the following statement is
false
A. Nephrons perform excretion through filtration, reabsorption and secretion.
B. Nephridia are accessory excretory organs in Prawn
c. Tapeworm have excretory flame cells
D. Nephrons begin with Bowmen’s capsule having glomerulus
11
85Excretory products of mammals are useful to plants. Which of the following is not a part of such secretions?
A. Carbon dioxide
B. Mineral salts
c. Bile pigments
D. urea
11
86Occurence of excess urea in blood due
to kidney failure is
A. Urochrome
B. Uraemia
c. Uricotelism
D. Ureotelism
11
87Protein rich diet brings about relatively no change in which of the following constituents of urine?
A. Urea
B. Creatinine
c. Uric acid
D. Ammonia
11
88Which part of Nephron is not permeable
for water?
11
89Match the correct one
A. A: afferent arteriole, B: Proximal convoluted tubule, C
Henle’s loop, D: Distal convoluted tubule, E: Peritubular
capillaries, F: collecting duct
B. F: efferent arteriole, B: PCT, C: Henle’s loop, D: DCT, E:
peritubular capillaries, F: collecting duct
C. A: afferent arteriole, B: peritubular capillaries, C:
Henle’s loop, D: DCT, E: PCT, F: collecting duct
D. A: afferent arteriole, B: Henle’s loop, C: collecting ductt
D: PCT, E: DCT, F: peritubular capillaries
11
90Which of the following is not an
accessory excretory organ of vertebrates?
A. skin
B. Lungs
c. Liver
D. Heart
11
91Which one of the following statements in regard to the excretion by the human kidneys is correct?
A. Descending limb of loop of Henle is impermeable to water
B. Distal convoluted tubule is incapable of reabsorbing ( N a^{+} ) ions
c. Nearly 99 percent of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the rental tubules.
D. Ascending limb of loop of Henle is impermeable to electrolytes.
11
92In peritoneal dialysis, the blood is
A. Not removed from the body and and artificial filter is used
B. Removed from the body and an artificial filter is employed
C. Removed from the body and a natural filter is employed
D. Not removed from the body and a natural filter is used
11
93The yellow colour of urine is due to the
presence of
A . Bile
B. Lymph
c. cholesterol
D. Urochrome
11
94Name major excretory products. How are these products eliminated from, the body?11
95Very short answer type. Name the hormone whose deficiency causes diabetes insipidus.11
96Assertion
Kidneys maintain the osmotic
concentration of the blood.
Reason
Kidneys eliminate either hypotonic or hypertonic urine according to the need of the body.
A. Both Assertion and Reason are correct and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion
B. Both Assertion and Reason are correct but Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion
c. Assertion is correct but Reason is incorrect
D. Both Assertion and Reason are incorrect
11
97The waste products produced in man, which need excretion are
A. Carbon dioxide
B. Urea and salts
c. Excess of water
D. All of the above
11
98The principal nitrogenous excretory compound in humans is synthesised
A. In kidneys as well as eliminated by kidneys
B. In liver and also eliminated by the same through bile
C. In the liver but eliminated mostly through kidneys
D. In kidneys but eliminated mostly through liver
11
99All of the following are physiologic effects of acute renal failure, except
A. Edema
B. Hypertension
c. Acidosis
D. Immediate death
11
100Very short answer type.
Name the hormone that regulates each of the following: urinary elimination of
water
11
101What shows the sequence of organs through which urea passes as it travels from where it is produced to where it is removed from the blood?
A. Kidneys ( rightarrow ) Heart ( rightarrow ) Lungs ( rightarrow ) Heart ( rightarrow ) Liver
B. Kidneys ( rightarrow ) Heart ( rightarrow ) Liver ( rightarrow ) Lungs ( rightarrow ) Heart
c. Liver ( rightarrow ) Heart ( rightarrow ) Lungs ( rightarrow ) Heart ( rightarrow ) Kidneys
D. Liver ( rightarrow ) Lungs ( rightarrow ) Heart ( rightarrow ) Kidneys ( rightarrow ) Heart
11
102What is meant by osmoregulation? How is it maintained in human body?11
103The liquid which is collected in the
cavity of Bowman’s capsule is
A. concentrated urine
B. Blood plasma minus blood proteins and corpuscles
c. Glycogen and water
D. Sulphates and water
11
104Ureotelic organisms like mammals
excrete urea in their urine, that is
formed in
A . spleen
B. kidney
c. liver
D. gall bladder
11
105( C O_{2} ) is removed from the blood in the
A . ovaries
B. Heart
c. Kidney
D. Lungs
11
106In which part of nephron absorption of filtrate maximum
A. Distal convoluted tubule
B. Proximal convoluted tubule
c. Glomerulus
D. Henles loop
11
107Which one of the following statements
is correct with respect to salt water balance inside the body of living organisms?
A. When water is not available camels do not produce urine but store urea in tissues
B. Salmon fish excretes lot of stored salt through gill membrane in fresh water.
c. Paramecium discharges concentrated salt solution by contractile vacuoles.
D. The body fluids of fresh water animals are generally hypotonic to surrounding water.
11
108Podocytes are the cells present in
A. Cortex of nephron
B. Inner wall of Bowman’s capsule
C. Proximal convoluted tubule
D. Wall of glomerular capillaries
11
109Loop of Henle is meant for absorption of
A. Potassium
B. Glucose
c. water
D. ( C O_{2} )
11
110Which of the following sequences is correct regarding regulation of kidney
function?
A. An excess loss of water from body ( rightarrow ) Hypothalamus ( rightarrow ) Ormoreceptors ( rightarrow ) Neurohypophysis ( rightarrow ) ADH ( rightarrow ) Increases water permeability of DCT and CT ( rightarrow ) Prevention of diuresis
B. An excess loss of fluid from body ( rightarrow ) Ormoreceptors ( rightarrow ) Hypothalamus ( rightarrow ) Neurohypophysis ( rightarrow A D H rightarrow ) Increases wter permeability of DCT and ( mathrm{CT} rightarrow ) PRevention of diuresis
C. An excess loss of fluid from body ( rightarrow ) Ormoreceptors ( rightarrow ) Hypothalamus ( rightarrow ) Neurohypophysis ( rightarrow ) Aldosterone ( rightarrow ) Water permeability of DCT and CT increases ( rightarrow ) Prevention of diuresis
D. An excess loss of fluid from body ( rightarrow ) Ormoreceptor ( rightarrow ) Hypothalamus ( rightarrow ) Adenohypophysis ( rightarrow ) ADH ( rightarrow ) Increases water permeability of DCT and CT ( rightarrow ) Prevention of diuresis
11
111Kidneys are not only organs of excretion. Their work is supplemented
by
A . Liver
B. Heart
c. Large intestine
D. skin
11
112Haemodialysis is connected with
A . Liver
B. Spleen
c. Stomach
D. Kidney
11
113In which one of the following organisms
excretory organs are correctly stated?
A. Humans- Kidneys, sebaceous glands and tear glands
B. Earthworm- Pharyngeal, integumentary and septal nephridia
C. Cockroach-Malpighian tubules and enter caeca
D. Frog- Kidneys, skin and buccal epithelium
11
114Which one of the following statements
is false?
A. The presence of albumin in urine is albuminuria.
B. The presence of glucose in urine is glycosuria.
C. The absence of ketone bodies in urine is ketonuria.
D. The presence of excess urea in blood is uremia.
E. The presence of haemoglobin in urine is haemoglobinuria.
11
115Diuresis is the condition in which
A. The excretion of volume of urine increases
B. The excretion of volume of urine decreases
C. They kidneys fail to excrete urine
D. The water balance of the body is disturbed
11
116Proximal convoluted tubule is lined by a single layer of ………… cells.
A. Brush bordered cubical
B. Columnar
c. Squamous
D. cubical
11
117Sea Gulls excrete salts through
A . Liver
B. Lungs
c. Urine
D. Nasal gland
11
118Haematuria is
( A ). RBCs in urine
B. WBCs in urine
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above
11
119Vital morphological and physiological units of mammalian kidney are
A. Ureters
B. Seminiferous tubules
c. Uriniferous tubules
D. Nephridia
11
120Duct of Bellini opens on
A. Ureter
B. Renal papilla
c. Duodenum
D. Distal convoluted tubule
11
121The part labelled as 1 in the given
structure of nephron is
A. Glomerulus
B. Bowman’s capsulel
c. Proximal convoluted tubule
D. Loop of Henle
E. Distal convoluted tubule
11
122Which of the following is not a part of
nephron?
A . PCT
в. DCT
c. Loop of Henlen
D. collecting duct
11
123Which one of the following components of urine in a healthy human does not differ much in concentration from
that of blood plasma?
( mathbf{A} cdot N H_{4}^{+} )
в. ( K^{+} )
c. ( N a^{text {t }} )
( mathrm{D} cdot S O_{4}^{2} )
11
124Frog’s kidneys for communication with
the coelom has
A. Nephridiopores
B. Septal nephridia
c. Nephrostomes
D. Renal pores
11
125The two kidneys lie
A. At the level of ovaries
B. At the same level
C. Left kidney at a higher level than the right one
D. Right kidney at a higher level than the left one
11
126Glomerulus and Bowmans capsule constitute
A. Blood vessels
B. Malpighian body
c. Green gland
D. Malpighian tubule
11
127Which one of the following is not a part of a renal pyramid?
A. Loops of Henle
B. Peritubular capiliaries
c. convoluted tubules
D. collecting ducts
11
128The region of the nephron found in the
renal medulla is
A. Malpighian corpuscle
B. Proximal convoluted tubule
c. Distal convoluted tubule
D. Henle’s loop
E. Glomerulus
11
129The characteristic that is shared by urea, uric acid and ammonia is /are
(A) They are nitrogenous wastes.
(B) They all need very large amount of water for excretion.
(C) They are all equally toxic.
(D) They are produced in the kidneys.
A . A and C
B. ( A, C ) and ( D )
c. A and
D. A only
11
130The function of urea being produced as an excretory material in mammals and
sharks is that
A. It raises the pH level of the blood
B. It sends signals from cells that produce it to other organs
c. It provides energy to some cells and tissues
D. It prevents ammonia from building up in the body
E. It eliminates water from the bloodstream
11
131Given below are five groups of five terms in each. Arrange the terms in each group in their proper sequence.
I.Renal Pelvis, Urethra, Ureter Kidney
Urinary Bladder
ii. Sodium ions move into the axon,
Repolarisation. Polarisation, Stimulus, Depolarisation
iii. ATP is produced, guard cells photosynthesise during the day guard cells become more turgid. guard cells become hypertonic, Potassium ions are actively pumped into the guard cells iv Efferent ducts, Network of ducts,
Seminiferous tubules. Urethra, Vas
deferens v. Response, Effector Brain or Spinal Cord, Receptor Stimulus
11
132Functional kidney of frog’s tadpole is
A. Pronephros
B. Mesonephros
c. Holonephros
D. Metanephros
11
133Each human kidney has nearly
A. 10,000 nephrons
B. ( 50,000, ) nephrons
( c .1,00,000 ) nephrons
D. 1 million nephrons
11
134An X-ray of lower abdomen shows a shades in the region of the ureter
suspected to be a uretelic calculus. A possible clinical symptom would be
A. Active renal failure
B. Anuria and haematuria
c. Motor aphasia
D. Chronic renal failure (CRF)
11
135Kidneys, lungs, gills and sweat glands,
are parts the of system in animals.
A. Digestive
B. Excretory
c. Blood circulation
D. Nervous
11
136Copy the picture.
(a) Label the parts ( A, B ) and ( C )
(b) Note down the functions of ( mathrm{B} ), ( mathrm{C} ) and
D.
11
137Name the organ which produces urea.11
138Pancreas is absent in which group of
vertebrates
A. Reptiles
B. Cyclostomates
c. Birds
D. Mammals
11
139Loop of Henle is connected with
A. Dilution of urine
B. Removal of water
c. counter current multiplier system
D. Remove salt
11
140Fill in the blanks with appropriate
words.

The yellow colour of urine is due to

11
141Very short answer type.
What are the function performed by nephrons?
11
142The enzyme converting Angiotensin-I to Angiotensin-II is secreted by?
A. Kidneys
B. GI tract
c. Lungs
D. Heart
11
143Sketch and label Malpighian body.11
144124. Consider the following statements about different
impurities in drinking water.
(1) Lead can damage kidney, liver, reproductive system.
(II) Sulphide content above 500 ppm causes laxative
effect.
(III) Nitrate content above 50 ppm causes diseases such
as methaemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome)
Out of the above
(a) Only III is correct (b) All but I are correct
(c) All but II are correct(d) I, II and III are correct
11
145Absorption of water in DCT is controlled
by
( mathbf{A} cdot ) АСТН
в. АDН
c. LH
D. Oxytocin
11
146Read the following table and answer the
following questions.
sı. Structure Location
No.
1
Tricuspid Right auriculoriculo-
lar aperture valve
2
Guard cells ( quad ) Epidermis of leaves
3. Glomerulus Nephron
4. Alveoli
5
Acrosome Above the head of a
sperm
Name the part performing Excretion.
11
147Which materials are excreted by
kidneys and lungs?
begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|}
hline & kidneys & lungs \
hline A & carbon dioxide & carbon dioxide \
B & carbon dioxide & urea \
c & urea & carbon dioxide \
D & urea & urea \
hline
end{tabular}
11
148Kidney of adult rabbit is
A. Pronephros
B. Metanephros
c. Mesonephros
D. Opisthonephros
11
149Incorrect statement in the following
A. Glomerulus is a group of fine blood capillaries
B. Loop of Henle is a part of malpighian body
C. Jatropa is the source of bio-diesel
D. Symptoms of uremia is swelling of feet
11
150Glycosuria is the condition, where a
man
A. Eats more sugar
B. Excretes sugar in urine
c. sugar is excreted in faeces
D. Has low sugar level in blood
11
151Select the correct statement.
A. Secretion is the ejection of waste material from the body
B. Excretion is the release of material within the body.
C. Secretion and excretion both are the movement of unwanted material in the blood.
D. Excretion is the release of unwanted material from the
body
11
152Explain excretion in human beings.11
153Which one is the most soluble in water?
A. Uric acid
B. Urea
c. Fatty acids
D. casein
11
154Assertion
In dialyzer, the plasma proteins of the blood cannot be filtered, but molecules
like urea, uric acid, creatinine and ions
can be filtered.
Reason
The cellophane membrane, used in the dialyzer is permeable to micromolecules, but impermeable to macromolecules.
A. Both Assertion and Reason are correct and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion
B. Both Assertion and Reason are correct but Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion
C. Assertion is correct but Reason is incorrect
D. Both Assertion and Reason are incorrect
11
155Reabsorption of water in the nephron is controlled by ADH and aldosterone hormone.
A. True
B. False
11
156Number of mitochondria is maximum
in part of uriniferous tubule
A . PCT
B. Loop of Henle
c. DcT
D. Bowmans capsule
11
157Which of the following applications
illustrates that evaporation leads to
cooling?
A. Perspiration in human body
B. Transpiration in leaves
c. water in earthern post
D. All of the above
11
158The high concentration of uric acid in the blood will eventually lead to
A. Arthritis
B. Rheumatism
c. Gout
D. Rheumatic heart
11
159In diabetes melitus the patient drinks more water as there is urinary loss of
A. Salt
B. Insulin
c. Protein
D. Glucose
11
160Pick the odd ones in each of the
following groups and select the correct
option.
(i) Renal pelvis, Medullary pyramid, Renal cortex, Renal papilla
(ii) Afferent arteriole, Henle’s loop, Vasa
recta, Efferent arteriole
(iii) Glomerular filtration, Antidiuretic
hormone, Hypertonic urine, Collecting
duct
(iv) Proximal convoluted tubule, Distal
convoluted tubule, Henle’s loop, Renal
corpuscle
A. (i)Renal pelvis (ii)Henle’s loop (iii)Collecting duct tubule (iv)Distal convoluted tubule
B. (i)Renal papilla (ii)Afferent arteriole (iii)Antidiuretic hormone (iv)Henle’s loop
C. (i)Medullary pyramid (ii)Efferent arteriole
(iii)Hypertonic urine (iv)Proximal convoluted tubule
D. (i)Renal cortex (ii)Vasa recta (iii)Glomerular filtration (iv)Renal corpuscle
11
16137. The filtration unit of kidney
is
(1) axon
(3) neuron
(2) nephron
(4) yellow fiber
11
162The first formed nitrogenous waste of
vertebrates is
A ( . N H_{2} )
B. Urea
c. ( N H_{3} )
D. ( N H_{4} )
11
163Osmoregulation is control over the
A. ( mathrm{pH} ) of the blood and other tissues
B. removal of nitrogen from the body
C . osmotic properties of cell membranes
D. concentrations of salt and water in the body
11
164How does the blood come out of the
capillary and come in contact with the Bowman’s capsule so as to form filtrate?
11
165Assertion
Diabetes insipidus is marked by excessive urination and too much thirst
for water.
Reason
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) is
secreted by the posterior lobe of pitutiary gland.
A. Both assertion and reason are correct and reason is the correct explanation for assertion
B. Both assertion and reason are correct but reason is not the correct explanation for assertion
c. Assertion is correct but reason is incorrect
D. Both assertion and reason are incorrect
11
166For the formation of urea, which one of
the following is required along with ammonia?
A. Arginase, ( C O_{2} ) and ( O_{2} )
B. Arginase, ( C O_{2} ) and water
C. Asparate, ( C O_{2} ) and water
D. Asparate, ( C O_{2} ) and ( O_{2} )
11
167Fluid within the loop of Henle is
concentrated in the
A. Descending limb
B. Thick ascending duct
c. Hairpin bend between descending and ascending ( operatorname{limbs} )
D. Bend between the ascending limb and the distal tubule
11
168Haemodialysis is carried out in case of
severe defect in
A. Kidney
B. Liver
c. Lung
D. Stomach
11
169Average quantity of urea excreted daily humans per day is
A . ( 10-15 ) g
B. 25 – 30 g
c. ( 40-50 mathrm{g} )
D. 100 – 500 mg
11
170Give a brief account on human
excretory system. Add a note on vertica section of kidney.
11
171The hormone secreted by kidney is
A. Gastrin
B. Secretin
c. Erythropoietin
D. Aldosterone
11
172Which one is the correct option for the structure and function of a
nephron?
A . Glomerulus- filtration
B. Proximal convoluted tubule- reabsorption
c. Both A and B
D. Distal convoluted tubule- filtration
11
173Which of the following pairs is wrong?
A. Uricotelic- -Birds
B. Ureotelic- -Insects
c. Ammonotelic – Tadpole
D. Ureotelic – Elephant
11
174Proximal and distal convoluted tubules
are parts of a
A. Nephron
B. oviduct
c. vas deferens
D. Caecum
11
175Short / Long answer type questions. What is feedback control? IIlustrate
feedback mechanism of homeostasis
by an example of hormones.
11
176Which of the following options shows the correct measurements of an adult
human kidney?
A. ( 10-12 mathrm{cm} 5-7 mathrm{cm} 2-3 mathrm{cm} )
( 120-170 mathrm{g} )
B. ( 10-20 mathrm{cm} 10-12 mathrm{cm} 6-12 mathrm{cm} )
( 40-50 mathrm{g} )
c. ( 2-6 mathrm{cm} 8-10 mathrm{cm} 5-10 mathrm{cm} )
( 60-70 mathrm{g} )
D. ( 10-12 mathrm{mm} 5-7 mathrm{mm} 2-3 mathrm{mm} )
( 120-170 mathrm{mg} )
11
177About how many nephrons are there in each kidney of a human?
A . 16
B. 200
( c cdot 1000 )
D. 1,000,000
11
178The urethra is surrounded by sphincter muscles.
A . True
B. False
11
179Write the name of excretory organs and draw a labelled diagram of excretory system in humans.11
180Loop of Henle is part of
A. Uriniferous tubule
B. Seminiferous tubule
c. Neuron
D. Muscle fibres
11
181How many molecules of ammonia are
required to form 8 molecules of urea?
A . 24
B. 8
( c cdot 16 )
( D )
11
182A mammal excretes nitrogen in the
form of
A. Ammonium ions
B. Amino acids
c. urea
D. Uric acid
11
183If kidneys fail to reabsorb water, the effect on tissue would
A. Remain unaffected
B. Shrink and shrivel
C. Absorb water from blood plasma
D. Take more ( O_{2} ) from blood
11
184Glomeruli are confined to
A. Cortex
B. Medulla
c. Pelvis
D. Pyramid
11
185Presence of RBC in urine is called
A. Anuria
B. Haematuria
c. Glycosuria
D. Ketonuria
11
186Part not belonging to nephron tubule is:
This question has multiple correct options
A . Glomerules
B. Bowman’s capsule
c. collecting duct
D. Loop of Henle
11
187A large quantity of fluid is filtered every day by the nephrons in the kidneys, only about ( 1 % ) of it is excreted as urine. The
remaining ( 99 % ) of the filtrate
A. Gets collected in the renal pelvis
B. Is lost as sweat.
c. Is stored in the urinary bladder.
D. Is reabsorbed into the blood
11
188Podocytes are the cells, present in
A. Cortex of nephron
B. Inner wall of Bowman’s capsule
C. Outer wall of Bowman’s capsule
D. Well of glomerular capilaries
11
189The function of counter current
mechanism is performed by
I. Gills
II. Kidneys
III. Intestines
IV. Lungs
A. I and III only
B. Il and IV only y
c. ।, ॥, and IV
D. I, II, III, and IV
11
190What is the nitrogenous waste produced by amphibian larvae and by the adult animals different?11
191What is an artificial kidney haemodialysis? Write the use of
haemodialysis.
11
192In mammals, the urinary bladder opens
into
A. Uterus
B. Urethra
c. vestibule
D. Ureter
11
193Excretory material are formed in
A. Kidney
B. Rectum
c. Liver
D. Every cell of the body
11
194The nephrons discharge their urine at
the:
A. Urinary bladder
B. Urethra
c. Renal pelvis
D. Renal pyramid (calyses)
11
195Refer to the given figure of human
urinary system and select the option
that correctly identifies the labelled
parts ( A ) to ( E )
A. Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Dorsal aorta Urethra Pelvis
B. Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Dorsal aorta Urinary bladder Cortex
c. Ureter Inferior vena cava Dorsal aorta Urinary bladder Pelvis
D. Dorsal aorta Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Urinary bladder Cortex
11
196Whenever the amount of urine
decreases the stage is called
A. Anuria
B. Polyuria
c. oliguria
D. Floating kidney
11
197Ducts of Bellini are found in
A . Liver
B. Intestine
c. Medulla oblongata
D. Kidney
11
198An advantage of excreting nitrogeneous
wastes in the form of uric acid is that
A. Uric acid can be excreted in almost solid form.
B. The formation of uric acid requires a great deal of energy.
C. Uric acid is the first metabolic breakdown products of acids.
D. Uric acid may be excreted through the lungs.
11
199Describe the role of liver, lungs and skin in excretion.11
200With the help of a well labelled diagram, describe the structure of nephron11
201Do you find any relationship between circulatory system and excretory system? What are they?11
202Of the total nephrons,the juxtamedullary nephrons constitute
( % )
A . 15
B. 45 5
( c cdot 65 )
D. 85
11
203The ureters of opisthonephric kidneys represents
A. Wolffian ducts in male
B. Mullerian duct in female
c. Wolffian duct in both sexes
D. Both A and B
11
204What will happen if one kidney is removed from the body of a human
being?
A. Death due to poisoning
B. Ureamia and death
c. Stoppage of urination
D. The person will survive and remain normal. The other kidney will become hypertrophied.
11
205Fill in the blanks with appropriate
words.
The process of purifying blood by means of an artificial kidney is called……….
11
206The ureter transports urine to the urinary bladder
A. True
B. False
11
207Urinary bladder is absent in
A. Aves
B. Reptiles
c. Amphibians
D. Mammal
11
208Kidney stone is produced due to
A. Deposition of sand particles
B. Precipitation of proteins
C . Crystallisation of oxalates
D. Blockage of fat
11
209The primary threshold substance
are
A. Urea and uric acid
B. Potassium and calcium
c. Glucose and amino acids
D. Plasma proteins
11
210Choose the odd one out from given
option.
A. Renin
B. ANF
c. АDH
D. Aldosterone
11
211The wall of urinary bladder has a thick layer of smooth muscle called
A. Dartos
B. Detrusor
c. Deltoid
D. Depressor
11
212In Annelids, excretory organs are
A. Nephridia
B. Malpighian tubules
c. Green glands
D. Kidneys
11
213Match the following colums.
begin{tabular}{ll|ll}
& Column I & & Columns II \
A. & Polyuria & 1. & WBCs pus in urine \
B. & Pyuria & 2. & High level of uric acid in blood \
C. & Gout & 3. & Excess of urine output \
D. & Haematuria & 4. & Presence of blood (RBCs) in urine
end{tabular}
( mathbf{A} )
B. ( A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4 )
C. ( A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4 )
D. ( A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1 )
11
214Draw the structure of a nephron and label glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, renal artery, collecting duct.
b) What happen to glucose that enters the nephron along with the filtrate?
11
215Which of the following agents does not cause contraction of the mesangial cells in the glomerulus?
A. Noradrenaline
B. Histamine
c. Dopamine
D. vasopressin
11
216What are the principal components of an artificial kidney?11
217Which of the following is called the artificial kidney?
A. Dializer
B. Haemocytometer
c. Auto analyser
D. Artificial Pacemaker
11
218Function of loop of Henle is
A. Conservation of water
B. Formation of urine
C. Filtration of blood
D. Passage of urine
11
219The glomerulus is a network of parallel capillaries which are approximately in number
A. 5
B. 50
( c .500 )
D. 5000
11
220Draw the structure of a nephron and label the following ; Glomerulus Bowman capsule, renal artery, collecting duct,
b) What happen to glucose that enters the nephron along with the filtrate
11
221The main waste which passes into the dialysing solution of a dialysis machine is
A. Cellulose
B. Glucose
c. water
D. urea
11
222The main excretory organs in man are
A. Kidneys
B. Nephridia
c. Trachea
D. Lungs
11
223The diagram below represents a group of organs in the human body. Urine leaves the urinary bladder by passing
through this structure labeled as
( A )
B.
( c )
( D )
11
224The hormone involved in the active
water reabsorption in renal tubules
A. Anti-diuretic hormone
B. Vasopressin
c. Both A and B
D. Adrenaline
11
225Which part of Juxta medullary nephron is found in cortical region
A. Malpigian body
B. Proximal convulated tubule
c. Distal convulated tubule
D. Loop of henle
11
226State the exact location of the following
structures.
Proximal convoluted tubule.
11
227Functional unit of kidney is
A. Neuron
B. Nephorn
c. Glomerulous
D. Bowman’s capsule
11
228The most commonest component of kidney stones is
A. Calcium oxalate
B. Uric acid
c. cysteine
D. Magnesium phosphate
11
229Differentiate between
Ureter and urethra
11
230In man, kidney is
A. Pronephros
B. Mesonephros
C . Metanephros
D. None of the above
11
231Urine is excreted out of the body
through
A . Pelvis
B. Ureter
c. Urinary bladder
D. Urethra
11
232Dialysis fluid contain all the constituents as in plasma except11
233The hormone that increases the blood
calcium level and decreases its
excretion by kidney is
A. Parathormone
B. Calcitonin
c. Thyroxine
D. Insulin
11
234The two main parts of nephron are
A. Bowman’s capsule and renal tubule
B. Glomerulus and renal tubule
C. Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus
D. Glomerulus and malpighian body
11
235An organism which has Malpighian tubule as excretory organ can be placed in phylum
( mathbf{A} )
Arthropda
( mathbf{B} )
Annelida
( mathbf{c} )
Platyhelminthes
D. None of the above
11
236Archinephros occurs in
A. Adult hagfish
B. Larva of hagfish
c. Molluscs
D. Anamniotes
11
237Select the correct option representing
the excretory organs present in (i) earthworm, (ii) centipede,(iii) prawn,
and (iv) flatworm.
A. (i) Malpighian tubules
(ii) Flame cell (iii) Nelphridia
(iv) Green gland
B. (i) Flame cell (ii)Green gland (iii) Malpighian tubules
(iv) Nephridia
C. (i) Nephridia (ii)Malpighian tubules (iii) Green gland
(iv) Flame cell
D. (i)Green gland (ii) Nephridia (iii) Flame cell (iv) Malpighian tubules
11
238The glomerular membrane has a permeability about
A. 100 to 500 times as great as usual capillary
B. 20 times greater than capillary
c. 10 times greater than capillary
D. Same as capillary
11
239Match the right pairs.11
240The vessel leading blood into the Bowman’s capsule is known as
A. Afferent arteriole
B. Efferent arteriole
c. Renal vein
D. Renal artery
11
241toppr
Q Type your question
membrane. It allows small molecules,
such as water, to pass through easily, while larger molecules, such as sucrose, are restricted. Movement of
molecules across the tubing is due to concentration gradients. In an experiment designed to study osmosis, several pieces of dialysis tubing were filled with sucrose solutions of varying concentration and placed in beakers containing distilled water. The rate and direction of water movement was
determined by weighing the bags before and after placing them in the distilled water. The data are recorded below.Table
( begin{array}{llll}text { Tube } & begin{array}{c}text { Tube } \ text { contents }end{array} & begin{array}{c}text { Mass }(mathrm{g}) \ 0end{array} & begin{array}{c}text { Mas } \ (mathrm{g})end{array} \ text { number } & begin{array}{l}text { (beaker } \ text { contents) }end{array} & text { minutes } & begin{array}{l}15 \ text { minn }end{array}end{array} )
Distilled water
(distilled
water)
10% sucrose the and suistilled water)
( 40 % )
sucrose ‘distilled
a water
Distilledd water
(40%)
sucrose)
Cell membranes are also
semipermeable, allowing water but not other substances to cross easily. A red blood cell placed in a ( 0.9 % ) NaCl solution will neither swell nor shrivel. Based on
this knowledge, and the information presented in Table 1 , what would happen to a red blood cell placed in a ( 20 % ) NaCl solution?
A. Water would be drawn out of the cell and the cell would swell
B. Water would be drawn into the cell and the cell would swell
c. water would be drawn out of the cell and the cell would shrivel
D. water would be drawn into the cell and the cell would shrive
E. NC
11
242An adaptation in the structure and
function of loop of Henle to xerophytic
environment is
A. A short loop of Henle, which allows more filtrate to be removed from the blood
B. A short loop of Henle, which allows less water to be removed from the filtrate
C. A long loop of Henle, which allows more filtrate to be removed from the blood
D. A long loop of Henle, which allows more water to be removed from the filtrate
E. A long loop of Henle, which allows less filtrate to be removed from the blood
11
243Which is mismatched?
A. Bowman’s capsule – Glomerular filteration
B. PCT – Absorption of ( N a^{+} ) and ( K^{+} )
C. DCT – Absorption of glucose
D. None of the above
11
244Which one is not supplied exclusively with involuntary muscles?
A. Iriss
B. Gland ducts
c. Urethra
D. coats of blood vessels
11
245A healthy person eats a very highprotein diet.What will be the effect on
the person’s urine?
A. It will contain amino acids.
B. It will contain glucose.
c. It will contain more urea
D. It will contain more water.
11
246The urinary bladder is muscular and is under – ………… control
A. Muscular
B. Mechanical
c. Nervous
D. Hormonal
11
247One of the following is impermeable to
( boldsymbol{H}_{2} boldsymbol{O} ) normally
A. PCT
B. DCT
C. Descending limb of loop of Henle
D. Ascending limb of loop of Henle
11
248The principal nitrogenous excretory compound in humans is synthesized
( mathbf{A} cdot ) In the liver, but eliminated mostly through kidneys.
B. In kidneys, but eliminated mostly through liver.
C. In kidneys as well as eliminated by kidneys.
D. In liver and also eliminated by the same through bile.
11
249List out the various excretory organs
found in the following:-
a) Sponges
b) Roundworms
c)Annelids
d) crustaceans
e) Insects
f) Flatworms
g) Echinoderms
h) Cnidarians
¡) Molluscs
j) Vertebrates
11
250Renal rickets is related to old age
A. Vitamin D deficiency
B. Osteoporosis
C. Chronic kidney disease
D. Both B and C
11
251Diabetes insipidus is due to
A. Hyposecretion of vasopressin(ADH)
B. Hypersecretion of insulin
C. Hyposecretion of insulin
D. Hypersecretion of vasopressin (ADH).
11
252Anti Diuretic Hormone(ADH) acts on the
A. collecting tubule of kidney
B. Loop of Henle
c. collecting ducts of testes
D. None of the above
11
253What is wrong about kidney
A. Peripheral cortex and central medulla
B. Blood enters glomerulus through efferent arterioles
C. Malpighian capsules occur in cortex
D. Concave part of kidney is called hilus
11
254Assertion : Earthworms excrete both
ammonia and urea

Reason : Excretion in earthworm
depends on the
environment.
A. If both the assertion and the reason are true and the reason
is a correct explanation of the assertion
B. If both the assertion and reason are true but the reason is
not a correct explanation of the assertion
c. If the assertion is true but the reason is false
D. If both the assertion and reason are false
E. If the assertion is false but reason is true

11
255Marcello Malpighi after whom Malpighian tubules are named was
born in
A. Germany
B. Australia
c. Austria
D. Italy
11
256Which of the following is a functions of
the kidney?
A. Filtration of blood to remove wastes
B. Blood pressure regulation
c. pH regulation
D. Both A and C
E. All of the above
11
257Length of female urethra is
( A cdot 15 mathrm{cm} )
B. 10 ( mathrm{cm} )
( c cdot 4 mathrm{cm} )
D. ( 2 mathrm{cm} )
11
258Excretion means
A. Removal of useless substances and substances
present in excess.
B. Formation of those substances which have some role
in the body.
c. Removal of such substances which have never been
part of the body.
D. All of the above.
11
259Which of the following have the chances to get eliminated from urine if there is
too much increase of sugar during
fever?
A. Glucose
B. Uric acid
c. Phosphates
D. Fructose
11
260Pelvis is a part of
A. Skeletal system
B. Kidneys
C. Brain
D. Both A and B
11
261The collecting ducts in the kidney
converge to form
A. Pyramid
B. Calyx
c. Pelvis
D. Columns of Bertin
11
262n kidney, nephrostomes are functional
in
A. Tadpole
B. Adult Frog
c. cockroach
D. Rabbit
11
263What are ketone bodies?
A. Acetoacetic acid, acetone and beta-hydroxybutyric acid
B. Nicotinic acid, folic acid and ascorbic acid
C. Acetone, betahydroxybutyryl CoA and acetoacetic acid
D. Acetic acid, acetone and beta-hydroxybutyric acid
11
264Ketone bodies are byproducts in the metabolism of
A. carbohydrate
B. Protein
( c . ) Fat
D. All the above
11
265Haemodialysis is a treatment option for patients with malfunctions of
A. Kidney
B. Heart
c. Liver
D. Lungs
11
266The Henle’s loop of nephron is mainly responsible for reabsorption of water in the kidney. Which of the following has a long loop of Henle in its nephrons to
conserve water?
A. Polar bear
B. Camel
c. Frog
D. whale
11
267Which of the following duct lead into the collecting tubules?
A. Tertiary duct
B. Duct of Bellini
c. Henle’s loop
D. Bowman’s capsule
11
268Which is the part of the nephron that exists in outer zone of kidney?
A. Loop of the henle
B. PCT
c. DCT
D. Bowman’s capsule
11
269What happen when water enter into
tissue without being retained in
kidney?
11
270Q Type your question.
questions
(i) Label parts 1,2,3 and 4
(ii) State the reason for the high hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus.
(iii) Name the blood vessel which
contains the least amount of urea in
this diagram.
(iv) Name the two main stages of urine
formation.
(v) Name the part of the nephron which
lies in the renal medulla.
11
271How kidney functions are regulated? Add a note on kidney transplantation?11
272Ducts of Bellini are found in.
A . Liver
B. Intestine
c. Medulla oblongata
D. Kidney
11
273Very short answer type.
Where is the hormone vasopressin
(ADH) synthesized?
11
274Which is correct in normal humans
A. pH of urine is around 8
B. ( 20-30 ) mg of urea is excreted per day
C. Ketone bodies in urine indicate diabetes mellitus
D. Glycosuria is treated with hemodialysis
11
275Urea synthesis occurs in
A. Kidney
B. Liver
c. Brain
D. Muscles
11
276Distinguish between simple gland and compound gland.11
277Q Type your question
nú, kangaroo rat, showing the relative size
of cortex and medulla. Coypu is found in
freshwater and is never of short of water
to drink. Brown rats are able to go some
days without drinking. Kangaroo rats are able to live in deserts without
drinking at all. Which kidney belongs to
which animal?
A. Brown rat
coypu Kangaroo rat
B. Brown rat Kangaroo rat coypu
c. Kangaroo rat Brown rat coypu
D. Kangaroo rat coypu Brown
11
278Circulatory system also performs the function of homeostasis.
A. True
B. False
11
279Match the columns and choose the
correct combination
11
280Fill in the blanks with appropriate
words.
The function of a ureter is……….. of urine.
11
281Duct of Bellini is connected with
A . Collecting duct
в. DcT
c. Ureter
D. Papilla
11
282Which one of the following statements in regard to the excretion by the human kidneys is correct?
A. Ascending limb of loop of Henle is impermeable to electrolytes.
B. Descending limb of Loop of Henle is impermeable to water
c. Distal convoluted tubule is incapable of reabsorbing ( H C O_{3}^{-} )
D. Nearly 99 per cent of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the renal tubules
11
283Increase in frequency of urination is
A. Uremia
B. Proteinuria
c. Polyurea
D. Glycosuria
11
284Differentiate between the following:
Ascending and descending limbs of
Henle’s loop.
11
285What will happen if one kidney is
removed from the body of a human
being?
A. Death due to poisoning
B. Uremia and death
c. Stoppage of urination
D. Nothing, the person will survive and remain normal, another kidney will become hypertrophied
11
286Dialysis fluid contains all the constituents as in plasma except
A. Electrolytes
B. Proteins
c. Nitrogenous wastes
D. All the above
11
287If there is a fault in the function of the
‘Bowman’s capsule, what will happen?
11
288Malpighian body is constituted by
A. Glomerulus only
B. Glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule
c. Glomerulus and efferent vessel
D. Glomerulus, Bowmans capsule and efferent vessel
11
289Dahlia starch is used for
A. Study of digestive enzymes
B. Study of kidney function
C. Preparation of noodles
D. Manufacture of chocolates
11
290What will happen if their is no tubular reabsorption in the nephrons of kidneys?11
291Assertion
Secreting hypotonic urine is effective in reducing urinary loss of water.
Reason
Hypotonic urine is more concentrated and higher in osmotic pressure than the blood.
A. Both Assertion and Reason are correct and Reason is the correct explanation for Assertion
B. Both Assertion and Reason are correct but Reason is not the correct explanation for Assertion
c. Assertion is correct but Reason is incorrect
D. Both Assertion and Reason are incorrect
11
292The hormone that promotes reabsorption of water from glomerular filtrate is
A. Oxytocin
B. Vasopressin
c. Relaxin
D. Calcitonin
11
293Tuft of capillary vessels which is surrounded by Bowman’s capsule is
A. Malpighian corpuscle
B. Juxtaglomerular apparatus
c. Glomerulus
D. Loop of Henle
11
294Draw a neat labelled diagram of
excretory system in human beings.
11
295Endocrine structure of kidney is
A. Cortex
B. Medulla
c. Juxtaglomerular apparatus
D. Pelvis
11
296Name the following:
(a) A chordate animal having flame cells as excretory structures.
(b) Cortical portions projecting between the medullary pyramids in the human kidney.
(c) A loop of capillary running parallel to
the Henle’s loop.
11
297Mesangial cells are located
A. In endothelium of glomerulus
B. Between endothelium and basal lamina
C. Infiltration slit
D. Sub podocytic space
11
298Function of glomerulus in mammalian kidney is
A. Reabsorption of salts from the blood
B. Urine formation through blood filtration
c. Urine collection
D. All of the above
11
299Skin is said to play an important role in
excretion, due to the presence of
A. Sweat glands
B. Sebaceous glands
c. Hair follicles
D. Hair cells
E. Both A and B
11
300Which of the following is metabolic waste of protein metabolism?
( A cdot N H_{3}, ) urea and ( C O_{2} )
B. Urea, oxygen and ( mathrm{N}_{2} )
c. Urea, ammonia and alanine
D. Urea, ammonia and creatinine
11
301Name the following.
Cortical portions projecting between the
medullary pyramids in the human kidney.
11
302Which is wrong
A. Presence of albumin in urine is albuminaria
B. Presence of glucose in urine is glycosuria
C. Presence of ketose sugar in urine is ketonuria
D. Presence of excess urea in blood is uremia
E. Presence of haemoglobin in nature haemoglobinuria
11
303I ne gıven mgure represenis a sıngle nephron from a mammalian kidney.
Identify the labelled parts, match them
with the functions (i-iv) and select the
correct option.
(i) The site of ultrafiltration.
(ii) Particularly sensitive to ADH.
(iii) The main site for the re-absorption
of glucose and amino acids.
(iv) Largely responsible for the
maintenance of blood pH.
A ( cdot(text { i) }-A, ) (ii)-E, (iii)-C, (iv)-D
B. (i)-A, (ii)-B, (iii)-C, (iv)-D
C ( cdot(i)-A,(text { ii })-B,(i i i)-C,(i v)-E )
D. (i)-A, (ii)-B, (iii)-D, (iv)-E
11
304Dialysis comes under
A. Surgery
B. Neurology
c. Nephrology
D. Haematology
11
305Which substance is in higher concentration in blood than in glomerular filtrate?
A. Urea
B. Plasma proteins
c. water
D. Glucose
11
306Choose the correct answers from the
following given. The mammalian excretory system involves all of the following except
A. reabsorption of high molecular weight proteins from the glomerular filtrate
B. active transport of chloride ions from the filtrate into the peritubular tissues
c. release of nitrogenous wastes into the intestines
D. hormonal control of permeability of walls in various excretory tubules
11
307Correct order of excretory organs in cockroach, earthworm and rabbits are
respectively
A. Skin, malpighian tubules, kidney
B. Malpighian tubules, nephridia, kidney
c. Nephridia, malpighian tubules, kidney
D. Nephridia, kidney, green gland
11
308Find the correct answers about
glomerular filtrate
1. Formed continuouslythrough ultrafiltration of blood
2. Lipid free fluid collects in the lumen
of Bowmans capsule
3. Protein free fluid collects in the
lumen of Bowmans capsule
4. Formed by process of selective reabsorption.
A .1,2,3 correct
B. 1,2 correct
c. ( 2,4, ) correct
D. 1,3 correct
11
309Choose the most appropriate answer; Kidneys are excretory organs in
A. All chordates
B. Only mammals
C. Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians
D. Mammals, Reptiles and Birds
11
310Part not belonging to uriniferous tubule
is
A . Glomerulus
B. Henle’s loop
c. Distal convoluted tubule
D. connecting tubule
11
311Bowman’s glands are located in the
A. Proximal end of coniferous tubules
B. Anterior pituitary
C. Female reproductive system of cockroach
D. Olfactory epithelium of nose
11
312Choose the correct answers from the
alternatives given The maintenance of internal conditions
of an organism within a certain boundary range is called
A. evolution
B. metabolism
c. adaptation
D. homeostasis
11
313Urine is always fluid except in
A. Birds
B. Humans
c. Amphibians
D. Mammals
11
314What is the characteristic of
metanephric kidney?
A. Hypotonic urine production
B. Excess secretion of uric acid
c. Loop of Henle
D. Hormone production
11
315The filtrate from the glomerulus contains
A. Urea and uric acid
B. Urea, uric acid and ammonia
c. Urea, uric acid, ammonia and water
D. Urea, uric acid, glucose and water
11
316Which one of the following is correct with reference to haemodialysis?
A. Absorbs and resends excess of ions
B. The dialysis unit has a coiled cellophane tube
C. Blood is pumped back through a suitable artery after haemodialysis
D. Anti-heparin is added prior to haemodialysis
11
317a) The diagram below shows the
excretory system of a human being.
Study the same and then answer the
questions that follow.
i) Name the parts labelled 1,2,3 and 4
ii) Give the main function of the parts
labelled 5,6,7 and 8
iii) Name the endocrine gland which
could be added in the diagram and
state its location/position.
11
318ADH deficiency shows the following condition
A. Only polydipsia
B. Polyuria
c. Polydipsia and polyuria
D. Glucosuria
11
319Which terms for ( P, Q, R, S, T, U, ) and ( V ) will
make the following paragraph true?
The human excretory system consists
of kidneys, ureters, ( _{-}-P_{–} ) and ( _{-}-Q ) The ( _{–} R_{–} ) brings the dirty blood into kidneys. Kidneys remove the poisonous substances urea, salt and extra water
from the body. The cleaned blood is
carried away from the kidneys by ( S_{–} cdot_{–} T_{–} ) is the tube that carries
urine from the kidney to the ( _{–} U_{–} ) The urine collected in the bladder is
passed out of the body through the
( mathbf{V}_{–} )
A. P- -bladder; Q-urethra; R_renal artery; S-renal vein; Tureters; U-bladder; V-urethra
B. P- bladder; Q-urethra; R_renal vein; S-renal artery; Tureters; U-bladder; V-urethra
c. P- bladder; Q-urethra; R_renal artery; S-venacava; Tureters; U-bladder; V-urethra
D. None of these
11
320DCT lies close to:
A. PCT of the same nephron
B. PCT of a different nephron
C. Glomerulus of the same nephron
D. Glomerulus of a different nephron
11
321Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is
lined with
A. Cuboidal epithelium
B. Simple brush border epithelium
c. simple cuboidal brush border epithelium
D. Simple ciliated brush border epithelium
E. Columnar epithelium
11
322In kidney, the high capillary bed is found
A. In Bowman’s capsule
B. Around anterior tubules
c. Around loop of Henle
D. Absent
11
323The hormone ADH is released from the
A. Adenohypophysis
B. Neurohypophysis
c. Adrenal gland
D. None of the above
11
324The filtration units of kidney are called
as
A . Ureter
B. Urethra
c. Neurons
D. Nephrons
11
325Which of the following statements are correct?
(i) Glucose has a high threshold value.
(ii) Urine is concentrated in Henle’s
loop.
(iii) Haemodialyser removes urea, uric acid, glucose and plasma proteins.
(iv) In glomerulus, urea, uric acid, water, glucose and plasma proteins are filtered out.
A . (i), (iii) and (iv)
B. (ii), (iii) and (iv)
c. (i) and (ii)
D. (i) and (iii)
11
326Draw excretory system in human beings and label the following organs of excretory system which perform
following functions.
(i) form urine
(ii) is a long tube which collects urine from kidney
(iii) store urine until it is passed out
11
327Fill in the blanks with appropriate
words.
Ammonia is converted into urea in……….
11
328In mammalian kidney, Henle’s loop is
present in
A. cortex
B. Caput epididymis
c. Medulla
D. Ureter
11
329Maximum absorption of water in mammals is in
A. Lung
B. skin
c. Kidney
D. Small intestine
11
330Give a brief account of the counter
current mechanism.
11
331Explain the temporary and permanent
methods to be adopted for kidney
failure (ESRD) persons.
11
332Name the organs that form the
excretory system in human beings.
11
333What will happen if one kidney is removed from the body of a human
being?
A. Death due to poisoning
B. Uremia and death
c. Stoppage of urination
D. The person will survive
11
334The opening of the urinary bladder is
A. Nephron
B. Ureter
c. Urethra
D. Nephridia
11
335The excretory system of human beings includes a pair of …………, a pair of ( ldots . . . . . . . ) a and a ………… which helps in the filtration of blood.
A. Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
B. Urethra, ureters, urinary bladder, kidneys
C. Kidneys, urethra, ureters, urinary bladder
D. Kidneys, urinary bladder, ureters, urethra
11
336The characteristic(s) common to urea,
uric acid, and ammonia is/are
(i) They are nitrogenous wastes.
(ii) They all need a very large amount of water for excretion.
(iii) They are all equally toxic.
(iv) They are produced in the kidneys.
A. (i), (ii) and (iv)
B. (i) only
c. (i) and (iii)
D. (i) and (iv)
11
337Presence of RBC in urine is known as
A. Hematuria
B. Urolithiasis
c. Nephritis
D. Proteinuria
11
338Glomerulus occurs in …………………. capsule.
A. Bowman’s
B. Kreb’s
C. Pacinian
D. None of the above
11
339Macula densa is found in
A. Internal ear
B. Kidney
c. Liver
D. spleen
11
340Which one of the following is a part of a renal pyramid?
A. Peritubular capillaries
B. convoluted tubules
c. collecting ducts
D. All of the above
11
341Ammonia is converted into urea in
A. Kidney
B. Spleen
c. Liver
D. Nephron
11
342Bertin are extensions of
A. Hilum in pelvis
B. Medulla in pelvis
c. Medulla in cortex
D. cortex in medulla
11
343Which is present in the kidney?
A . Glomerulus
B. Neurons
c. Middle kidney duct
D. Nephridia
11
344Describe Malpighian body. Explain its role in urine formation.11
345Glomerular capillaries are times more permeable to water
A . 5000
B. 6000
( c .9000 )
D. 10,000
11
346Sweat contains
A. Urea
B. Water
c. Sodium chloride
D. All of the above
11
347Excessive thirst leading to increased consumption of water is
A. Polyurea
B. Glycemia
c. Polyphagia
D. Polydipsia
11
348Ciliated funnels found on the ventral
side of kidney in Frog are
A. Ostia
B. Nephrostomes
c. Bidders organs
D. Corpora adiposa
11
349A person who is not taking food or beverages will have in urine
A. Little glucose
B. Less urea
c. Excess urea
D. Little fat
11
350Excretory product of spider is
A. Ammonia
B. Uric acid
C. Guanine
D. All the above
11
351Artificial kidney contains a number of tubes with a ( ldots . . . . . . . . ) lining, suspended in the tank filled with dialysing fluid.
A. Permeable
B. Semi permeable
c. Impermeable
D. None of the above
11
352Following are four statements. Find out the correct combination.
. Glucose has high threshold value.
2. Urine is concentrated in Henles loop.
3. Haemodialyser removes urea, uric acid, glucose and proteins.
4. In glomerulus, urea, uric acid, water, glucose and plasma proteins are filtered out
( mathbf{A} cdot 1,3,4 )
в. 2,3,4
( c .1,2 )
D. 1,3
11
353Haemodialysis is also called artificial
A . Liver
B. Lung
c. Heart
D. Kidney
11
354Define excretion.11
355What will the course of action if a
person goes through a kidney failure
11
356Which of the following statements are false?
(i) Outer cortex and inner medulla are the two zones in kidney.
(ii) Medulla is divided into few renal pyramids.
(iii) Pyramid projects into calyx.
(iv) Inward extension of cortex between
the pyramids is called renal column of Bertini.
A. (i) and (iv)
B. (ii) and (iv)
c. (ii) and (iii)
D. None of these
11
357pH of human urine is
( A cdot 9 )
B. 6
( c cdot 4 )
D. 3
11
358Which one of the following statements
is correct with respect to kidney
function regulation?
A. When someone drinks lot of water, ADH release is
suppressed
B. Exposure to cold temperature stimulates ADH release
C. An increase in glomerular blood flow stimulates formation of angiotensin II
D. During summer when body loses lot of water by evaporation the release of ADH is suppressed
11
359The urine is
A. Hypotonic to blood and isotonic to medullary fluid
B. Hypertonic to blood and isotonic to medullary fluid
C. Isotonic to blood and hypotonic to medullary fluid
D. Isotonic to blood and hypertonic to medullary fluid
11
360A condition of failure of function of
kidney to form urine is
A. Creatinine
B. Hematuria
c. Anuria
D. Alkaptonuria
11
361What is tubular secretion? Name the
substances secreted through the renal tubules.
11
362What is Glycosuria and Ketonuria? Explain.11
363Very short answer type. Name the exact part of the uriniferous tubule which is directly influenced by
ADH.
11
364The mechanism of urine formation in
nephron involves
A. (i)- Glomerular filtration
(i)- Reabsorption, (ii) Secretion, (iv)- Excretion
B. (i)- Glomerular filtration
(ii)- Secretion, (ii)Reabsorption,
(iv)- Excretion
c. (i)- secretion
(ii)- Reabsorption, (ii)- Glomerular filtration, (iv)- Excretion
D. (i)- Glomerular filtration
(ii)- Reabsorption, (ii) Excretion
(iv)- Secretion
11
365The entire volume of the blood is filtered
by kidneys – – ( – ) – times a day.
A. Once
B. 5
( c cdot 100 )
D. 60
11
366Animals return water to the
environment by
(i) Perspiring
(ii) Drinking
(iii) Urinating
(iv) Breathing
A. (i), (iii) and (iv)
B. (i) and (ii)
c. (i) and (iii)
D. (iii) and (iv)
11
367Differentiate between the following pairs on the basis of what is mentioned in brackets :
(i) Photolysis and Photophosphorylation (Definition)
(ii) Bicuspid valve and Tricuspid valve. (Function)
(iii) Vasectomy and Tubectomy. (Explain)
(iv) Cerebrum and Spinal cord. (Arrangement of nerve cells)
(v) Bowman’s capsule and Malpighian
capsule. (Parts included)
11
368Assertion : Phenylketonuria is a recessive hereditary disease caused by
the body’s failure to oxidize an amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine, because of a defective enzyme

Reason : It results in the presence of phenylalanine in the urine
A. If both the assertion and the reason are true and the reason is a correct explanation of the assertion
B. If both the assertion and reason are true but the reason is not a correct explanation of the assertion
c. If the assertion is true but the reason is false
D. If both the assertion and reason are false
E. If the assertion is false but reason is true

11
369The diagram given is that of a structure present in a human kidney. Study the same and answer the question that follow.
a. What is the fluid that comes to part 2 called?
b. Name the main nitrogenous waste in
¡t.
11
370Write short notes on Hemodialysis11
371ADH helps in water elimination, making the urine hypotonic.
A. True
B. False
11
372What is Juxtaglomerular apparatus?11
373In hepatitis yellowing of urine is due to
A. Bilirubin
B. Bile salts
c. Pancreatic juices
D. sperms
11
374Which one of the following is present in the renal pyramid
A. Peritubular capillary
B. convoluted tubules
c. collecting ducts
D. Both A and C
11
375Terrestrial animals must
A. Excrete large amounts of urine
B. Conserve water
C. Actively pump out salts through skin
D. Excrete large amount of salts in urine
11
376In the case of renal failure and uraemia
which one of the following is employed?
A. Kindey replacement
B. Lithotripsy
c. Haemodialysis
D. Kidney removal
11
377Ketosis is due to
A. High insulin level
B. Low insulin level
C. Low thyroxine level
D. Low level of glucagon
11
378Fill in the blanks with appropriate
words.
The network of capillaries, enclosed in a Bowmans capsule is called
11
379In public urinals, the urine on standing
gives a pungent smell due to
A. Conversion of both urea and uric acid into ammonia
B. Conversion of uric acid into ammonia by ornithine cycle
c. conversion of urea into ammonia by bacteria
D. None of the above
11
380Juxta-glomerular apparatus is made up
of
A. Juxta-glomerular cell, macula densa and lacis cell
B. Juxta-glomerular cell, Purkinjee cell and chief cell
C. Juxta-glomerular cell, lacis cell and myoepithelial cell
D. Juxta-glomerular cell, macula densa and argentaffin cell
11
381Under low glomerular blood flow, juxta glomerular cells release
A. Angiotensin I
B. Angiotensin I
c. Aldosterone
D. Renin
11
382Match the excretory organs listed under
column I with the animals given under
column II and select the correct option.
Column I (Excretory organs)
A. Nephridia ( quad ) (i) ( quad ) Hydra
Malpighian ( quad ) (ii) ( quad ) Leech
B. tubules
C. Protonephridia
(iii) Shark
D. Kidneys
(iv) ( quad ) Roundworms
(v) Cockroach
A. A-(ii), B-(v), C-(iv), D-(iii)
B. A-(iv), B-(ii), C-(i), D-(v)
c. ( A-(v), B-(text { ii) }, C-(i v), D-( text { iii) } )
D. A-(ii), B-(iv), C-(v), D-(i)
11
383Mammals and terrestrial amphibians mainly excrete urea and are called11
384In which part uriniferous tubule, ( boldsymbol{N} boldsymbol{a}^{+} )
passes out
A. Descending loop of Henle
B. Collecting tubule
c. Ascending loop of Henle
D. None of the above
11
385Where are Malpighian corpuscles seen?
A. Medulla
B. Cortex
c. Pelvis
D. Pyramid
11
386In Amoeba, ( N H_{3} ) is excreted through
A. Food vacuole
B. Plasma membrane
c. contractile vacuole
D. All of the above
11
387Explain the internal structure of kidney?11
388In which one of the following organisms its excretory organs are correctly stated?
A. Frog – kidneys, skin and buccal epithelium
B. Human – kidneys, sebaceous glands and tear glands
c. Earthworm – pharyngeal, integumentary and septal nephridia
D. cockroach – Malpighian tubules and enteric caeca
11
389The cells named podocytes occur in
A. Inner wall of Bowman’s capsule
B. Outer wall of Bowmans capsule
C . Large intestine
D. Neck region of nephrons
11
390Renal physiology was described by
A. Ludwiggsgigg
B. Krebs
c. walter
D. Claude
11
391Nitrogenous waste in the Malpighian
tubule flows into
A. Haemocoel
B. Vacuole
c. Intestine
D. Duodenum
11
392Find out the correct labeling
A. a – Nephron, b – Cortex, c- Medulla, d- Pelvis, e – Ureter
B. a – Cortex, b – Nephron, c- Pelvis, d- Medulla, e- – Ureter
C. a – Cortex, b – Medulla, c- Nephron, d- Pelvis, e- Ureter
D. a – Nephron, b – cortex, c- Medulla, d- Ureter, e – Pelvis
11
393Ascending limb of Henle’s loop is to water whereas, the descending limb
is ( ldots ldots . . . . . . . ) to it.
11
394Prepare four questions you will ask a nephrologist about kidney failure.11
395Main function of glomerulus is
A. Reabsorption of water
B. Filtration of urine
c. Reabsorption of ( N a^{text {t }} )
D. concentration of urine
11
396Q Type your question-
nuticy. uuuy ur uiagial carefully and answer the questions that
follow:
(i) Label the parts numbered 1 to 4
(iii) Why does part’ ‘2’ have striped
appearance?
(iiii) What is the fluid that passes down
part ‘ 4 ‘? Name the main nitrogenous
waste present in it.
(iv) Mention the structural and
functional units of kidneys.
( (v) ) Name the two major steps in the formation of the fluid mentioned in ( (boldsymbol{i} boldsymbol{i} boldsymbol{i}) )
11
397The following substances are the excretory products in animals. Choose the least toxic from among them.
A. Urea
B. Uric acid
c. Ammonia
D. Carbon dioxide
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